Category: Nena Manucy Stowell

Point of View – Evalina Manucy

Art Education 413

Mr. Sutton

May 6, 1968


Structure of Learning


In our present educational system most emphasis has been placed upon the learning of actual information. To a great extent the passing or failing of an examination, course, or grade depends upon the mastery or memorization of certain bits of information that are already known to the instructor (or accessible to them). The function of the school system would then seem to be to produce people who can file away bits of information, and then repeat these at a given signal.

Once the student has achieved a certain competency at producing the proper bits at the correct time, they are considered right for passing and eventually graduating from school. What is the most disturbing is that the skill required for repeating bits of information may have very little to do with being a contributing, well-adjusted member of society.

I do not want to give the impression that by merely having good art programs in public schools, human civilization is saved; but the creative values that are meaningful in a developed art program are those which may be basic to the development of a new image, philosophy, or structure. More and more people are recognizing that the ability to learn differs from age to age, and from person to person. Also this ability to learn involves not only an intellectual capacity, but also social, emotional, perceptual, physical, and psychological factors. Learning is very complex, so there is no single best teaching method.

Goals in teaching can be judged only in terms of significance and inclusiveness of anticipated outcomes. Learning experiences are evaluated in the light of learning which apparently is taking place. Goals are realized by evaluation of human behavior concerning specific tasks.

There are two general approaches to the understanding of human behavior. The first approach says this: How people behave is a result of the forces exerted upon them. The individual’s behavior is ascribed to the forces that are observed to be operating upon them at a particular time. It would seem then that the answer to our problems of human relations must be a matter of the manipulation of the forces exerted upon people. This method of dealing with human problems is based upon fencing people in and is found everywhere in our society. When we try to use this method of dealing with people, we are often frustrated and distressed at the “uncooperative attitudes” of the people we try to deal with.

There are other interesting implications of this ‘manipulation-of-forces’ method. For example, in order to use this method effectively, somebody must know where the people should go. Carried to its ultimate extreme, such a point of view can only end in a dictatorship.

The concept of leadership which grows out of this conception of the nature of behavior, moreover, calls for a leader who is a kind of superman, skilled in the manipulation of forces to get people to behave in ways desired by the knowing few.

Stated in this way, such a view of dealing with people seems highly distasteful to those of us who are deeply concerned with democratic practices. Nevertheless, this is the method of dealing with people to be found most commonly everywhere in our society. In spite of ourselves, whenever we find ourselves saying “How can I make them behave?” We are illustrating this point of view about people.

The difficulty with this idea is not that it is wrong. The idea of talented or natural leadership is partly correct. People do behave, in part, because of forces which are exerted upon them. It seems people tend to behave in terms of the way those forces seem to affect them.

The second approach to human behavior: the idea that behavior is the result of how things seem to the person. Behavior is seen, not as a question of the stimuli or the forces to which the person is exposed, but rather as the product of the perceptions and concepts formed exist for the individual at the moment of their behavior.

People’s meanings or perceptions lie inside people and cannot be directly affected. This means that the ultimate control and direction of behavior lies always within the personality, rather than in the external forces exerted upon them. The approach to dealing with people calls for an emphasis upon the processes. Perception cannot be changed directly, it can only be utilized, encouraged, and assisted. This method emphasizes growth and development from within rather than forces and fencing in from outside. It requires that we learn to deal with people as we do with all other living things. This requires leaders who are understanding of others, skilled in the creation of healing relationships, and capable of assisting and encouraging the student in processes of personal exploration and discovery.

Learning, in this view, becomes a problem of helping people to perceive differently. I believe emphasis upon classroom atmosphere, activity learning, pacing of materials, group discussion methods, problem-solving approaches, and the like are fundamentally consistent with this conception of human behavior.

A group of students can become involved in goal planning. From goal planning, students will make faster progress, friends will be made, and a wider variety of materials can be used. Social skills are important for artists who want their work to become known in their lifetime.

Another strategy of learning is getting a pupil to want to ask questions. The ability to question, to seek answers, to find form, to develop order, to rethink, to restructure, and to find new relationships are qualities that are not generally taught; but are important. In fact these abilities seem to be frowned upon in our present educational system.

We learn through our senses. Our abilities to see, hear, smell, and taste provide us the means by which an interaction with our environment can take place. The more our senses are involved in problem solving, the more likely we are to become aware of the worth of the issue, and perhaps realize better ways of solving problems. We can realize that past conceptions and experiences can be used to foster present and future human potential. When we relate our present perceptions to our past experiences, this evaluation lets us learn, mature, and become more human.

An individual can learn well when they perceive or realize that their actions or behaviors of the past and present, are inadequate for the future. We are challenged by new problems or ideas, because it can give us new goals. We become curious and motivated towards these ends. We start to define our problems by considering various ways of behaving that might enable us to problem solve or reach goals. Perhaps we seek to balance the equilibrium of our lives, or create a catalyst for change.

A person may become fearful or upset by doubt, conflict, or confusion. They may feel insecure, threatened, and desire to withdraw. They are now unable to sense and perceive socially. They shut down recognition of problem solving importance. This means they cannot learn as well, and may develop negative concepts of themselves and others.

We learn best when we feel cared for, respected, understood and feel responsibility for self and others. We are less likely to learn when other people do not care, lack respect, are bossy or are apathetic. One of the basic abilities that should be taught is the ability to discover, to search for answers, instead of passively waiting for answers, and directions from the teacher.

We know too well that factual learning and retention, if it cannot be used by a free and flexible mind, will benefit neither the individual nor society. Education has often neglected these attributes of growth that are responsible for the development of the individual’s sensibilities, and for their ability to live cooperatively in a society. In a well-balanced education system, in which the development of the total being is stressed, each individual’s thinking, feeling and perceiving must be equally developed in order that their potential creative abilities can unfold.


Structure of Society

By looking around us today, we can see great material gains in society. But serious questions can be raised about how much we have educated ourselves beyond purchasing and consuming commercial products. Have we in our educational system really put emphasis upon the human? Or have we been so blinded by material awards that we have failed to recognize where the real values of a democracy lie, which is in the individual?

Our society is based on a democratic system where man is able to develop his potentials. Society is constantly being changed. Democracy supposedly has no discrimination against classes, and should teach responsibility  to all through our institutions. The growing number of emotional and mental illnesses in this nation (which is the large), as well as our inability to accept human beings regardless of nationality, religion, race, creed, or color is a frightening sign and vividly points out that our society has failed in a very significant aim.

While our high achievements in specialized fields, particularly in the sciences, have improved, our material standards for living have diverted our society from those values that are responsible for our emotional and spiritual needs. They have introduced a false set of values, which neglect the inner most needs of an individual. An individual is the most important element in a democratic society. The members of the society and / or the various classes or status groups within it, have to behave in such a way as to be able to function in accordance with the social system.  Humans had to be molded into people eager to spend most of their energy on work for others. In order to do this a discipline of willpower was needed. This discipline would be present itself as order and punctuality.

Our society consumes, as we produce, without any solid relativity to nature as a whole or respect for material objects. We live in a world of artificial ‘things’, and our only connection with them is that we know how to manipulate or consume them. Our rate and system of consumption necessarily results in the fact that we are never satisfied. Our society has developed an ever-increasing need for more things, and more consumption. It is also true that there is a legitimate need for more consumption as humans continue to multiply, and industry progresses. But our craving has lost all connection with the real needs of humanity. Originally, the idea of consuming more and more things was meant to give us a happier, more satisfied life. Success has been equated with mass consumption for too long. The constant increase of insatiable hunger makes us dependent on this system, and on the people and institutions by whose help we maintain the spinning balloon that is ever inflating.

Our society is based on these materials, and including the money to buy them. Recently the love of exchange has replaced by the love of possession. Each person strives to exchange their monetary value for the best goods attainable. We live in a society where sociability has a cash value.

Cordiality is taught and cultivated as a necessity in almost any career. The child is trained to respond with a “please” and “thank you”. Television commercials, clerks, and salesmen show an unending flash of smiles, and friendly appeals. While much of this outward show of friendliness is phony, it none-the-less surrounds us with an atmosphere of sociability which probably leaves some residue.

Our society forces people to develop an acute time consciousness, since nearly everything is done on a time schedule ‘according to the clock’. We live in a culture permeated by change and expectations of change. We base our future plans on the changes which we expect to have taken place by the time our plans mature.

Complex societies have numerous sub-cultures, each developing its own characteristic personalities, and reducing the overall uniformity of the masses. Even in simple societies, there is no complete uniformity in characteristics. Complex societies tend to have greater variation in diversity.

Five basic institutions which are found in our most complex societies are the family, church, state, school, and economic system.  Our institutions are centered around major human needs. In our society laws are a means of regulating many kinds of behaviors which are not clearly covered by the mores. Mores are ethics, morality, or codes of correct behavior in a society. These ethics are taught to our ethnic youth, and serve as beliefs in the rightness or wrongness of actions. Laws usually serve to reinforce mores or ethics.

Our society is progressive and ethnocentric. Ethnocentrism is a view of things in which one’s own group is the center of everything, and all the others are scaled and rated with reference to it. Stated less formally, it is the tendency for each group to take for granted the superiority of its culture and mores.

The influence of our society on its individuals cannot be underestimated. Our modern period is like a building with a ruined foundation, that keeps getting bigger and bigger despite the structural problems. So too, an individual can lose connection with their spiritual growth or purpose in life, and escape into a world of meaningless stereotyped patterns. Often to help us face a new situation, we try to find refuge in the repetition of conventional patterns for comfort.

This disunity between art and society, between education and environment, represents one of the factors that our present time suffers from. On the other side, this disunity is clearly expressed by an art expression that because of its extreme individualistic character, almost loses its communicative meaning. Thus, two extreme antipodes can be found within one culture: conventional traditional patterns; and radical individual expression. Obviously no single individual can be made responsible for the lack of integration between our culture (society), scientific achievements, and art. These important characteristics of our time have to be understood, especially by those who guide our youth. It is only when we see these discrepancies that we find the urge to change them.


Nature of People

An individual is born into this world without knowledge or wisdom, and they are removed from it again often without consent or will. In this respect, we are not any different from other animals, or plants, or even inanimate objects.

If only humans use symbols; only our communication reaches beyond the level of exchanging very simple feelings and intentions. With symbolic communication we can exchange detailed directions, share discoveries, and organize elaborate activities. Without it, we would quickly revert to caves and tree-tops again.

Language is so intimately tied up with culture that every new addition to the group’s cultural heritage involves additions to the language. In order to know a group we must learn their language. Special groups within a society (such as hobos, soldiers, railroad workers, and teenagers) have their own vocabulary, and sometimes their own dialect (or sub-language). We can express more than other animals seem to be able to, so in effect the more we express ourselves the more human we are.

Humanity’s greatest problem today is how to adjust ourselves and our social arrangements to the speed of a changing environment and culture. Culture is an organized system of behavior, together with its supporting ideas and values. How does the culture of a society function to control and direct the life of individuals?

Culture defines situations for all of us. For instance, suppose someone approaches you with right hand outstretched at waist level. They wish to shake hands in a friendly greeting. But in another place or time it could mean hostility or warning.

Culture defines attitudes, values, and goals. A person learns from their culture what is good, true, and beautiful. An individual learns attitudes, values, and goals unconsciously. These are probably the most important part of any culture. Humans are goal seeking, able to believe in values, and have faith in an idea. The individual may develop, modify, or oppose the trends of culture, but they always have some relationship to the framework of society and culture. Humans are creatures of habit. We learn to the patterns of society, to use them as we see fit. We are often very adaptable, within set conditions. Inherent in our nature are needs for happiness, harmony, love, and freedom. These are dynamic factors though, which if frustrated tend to arouse psychic reactions.

The structure of society and the function of the individual in the social structure, both can be considered in determining the content of our social character. Families may be considered the communicative agency of society and individuals; and educational institutions have the function of transmitting the requirements of society to children.

If humans are to be happy, there must be courage. It takes wit, interest, willpower, and energy to be happy. Humans must become interesting to themselves, and actually expressive somewhat to be happy (I think). None of us are devoid of the possibility of happiness; but many have not had enough interest in finding their real selves. Once we are aware of the road we are on, we can begin being content within, despite possible diversions that may lead in the opposite direction.

It is foolish to believe we have arrived at the end of our road, so long as we are still alive. The world is not yet done with us. We can still have hope of an even brighter future.


Behavior Goals

Goals in this part are objectives or aims which can be achieved by people through art experiences. These behaviors are of two types:

1. Covert – inner, hidden, behaviors and responses which can lead to observable or perceivable acts. Such hidden behaviors are: thinking, feeling, attitudes, etc…

2.  Overt – behaviors and responses often perceived, observed or measured with man-made devices.

The best way to define a goal is to describe what a person does when they achieve that goal.

1. Perceives acute visual and tactile designs

2. Solves art problems creatively

3. Makes aesthetic responses and judgments

4. Expresses visually personal ideas

5. Understands visual expressions of others (past/present children, peers, professionals)

6. Expresses and communicates self adequately to others


1. Perceives acute visual and tactile designs:  describes, points out, and/or uses in production…

A. LINE forces: direction (movement, size (width, length, etc), implied dark-light, Q

B. SHAPE forces: contour, inner direction, positive-negative, size relation, Q

C. TEXTURE forces: actual, illusory (looks rough, smooth, fluffy, warm, etc.), Q

D. VOLUME forces: contour, inner direction, positive-negative, size relationships, Q

E. SPACIAL forces: depth, distance, perspective (advancing/receding), baseline, overlapping, Q

F. COLOR forces:  hue (primary, secondary, etc.), shade value (light-dark, brightness, tone), tint intensity (hue saturation), psychological associations (warmness, coolness, passion, calmness, sickness, health, newness, oldness), Q

G. Guiding Principles of Harmony and Aesthetic Quality:  emphasis, proportion, repetition, dominance, shifting, alteration, tension, Q

H. Interprets from monotony in production, Q

I. Names, personal images, and subject matter, Q

* Q = overt behavior

2. Solves art problems creatively

A. Is fluent B. Is flexible C. Is original

3. Makes aesthetic responses and judgments

A. Expresses in some manner (verbal dialogue, gestures with hands or body, facial expression, audible sounds, etc.) how the total phenomenon makes one feel

B. Continues to have empathy and views the object from various distances, and all possible sides. Touches object if permissible.

C. Realizes that aesthetic judgments are made between two or more objects.

D. Responds qualitatively, intuitively, and emotionally the essence of the total object.

4. Expresses visually personal ideas

A. suggests and makes numerous personal images and symbols

B. uses overt behavior with visual forces

C. experiments and explores with numerous symbols or subjects before choosing.

5. Understands visual expressions of others (past/present children, peers, professionals)

children, peers, professionals, past / present

A. Expresses opinions and critiques of others freely

B. Makes aesthetic judgments and responses

C. As a critic can question and suggest related to tool processes

D. Asks self and others questions as to what is felt in relation to forces

6. Expresses and communicates self adequately to others

A. Questions and seeks answers to find or understand forms, orders, and meanings

B. Rethinks, restructures, and finds new relationships in groups or classes

C. Uses as many senses as they can to learn or solve a problem: listens, sees, smells, touches, verbalizes, and expresses feelings

D. Identifies with self, artwork, and others (covert and overt).

E. Cooperates with others (overt)


Art Education 412

Mr. Sutton

April 10, 1968

Assumption 1

ART is difficult to define. Everybody has a different answer to this question. Art will always have an individual and unique meaning to every person. But at the same time, there is something basic which should be a common denominator for all of us. This paper basically says what I believe to be the nature of art at this period of my studies.

Assumption 2

ART is done only by human beings. In the first place, we term art from nature or natural instinct, and in the second place, from a human being exercising the distinctive traits of the human mind. It can be said that art is nature made human, or nature re-made by the human mind.

Assumption 3

ART is a meaningful arrangement of symbols, ideas, and the forces in visual elements. An aesthetic response is made to a work of art. Also art is a creative production by humans using materials and tool processes.


When something has ‘Meaning’ it ‘matters’ and fulfills an aim or purpose. A meaningful arrangement is an arrangement having importance or significance to the human. Anything he or she relates to their past, or with their senses is meaningful.  (see Visual A)

A work of art is an arrangement of symbols or units that express an idea, mood or image. This means that the artist’s problem is (1) to create units or symbols that represent ideas or feelings, and (2) to organize these units into a form that is vital, and complete in its sum total.  (see Visual B)

Every work of art must be dealt with as a single unified whole. Any part distinguished within it must be understood as a component which actually affects, and is affected by, all the others. But there is no harm in analyzing a work of art by stressing first one component, and then another. This is what teachers and critics must do if they are to communicate to others the nature of specific works of art.

Henri Matisse has been quoted: “The work of ART has its own absolute significance implicit within itself and should convey this directly to the beholder before he stops to wonder what the picture represents.”  Art should be appreciated as a single whole before there is an attempt to understand its themes, developments, details, and various foci which make it possible for it to refer specific things.  (see Visual C for some examples of visual forces and guiding principles seen in parts of art works)

When one responds emotionally to the whole object, this is an aesthetic response. One can respond emotionally to Visual D (see Visual D). An aesthetic judgment is made between two or more objects. (see Visual E) When one starts to analyze the parts of an object, and wonder why they responded aesthetically, this is called a cognitive qualitative discriminative response.

We all have aesthetic experiences. Few of us have aesthetic experiences as subtle, variegated, or as complex as certain individuals have for certain pieces. The answer is because most of us are too practical with aesthetic blinders on. We are too immersed in the affairs of the mundane world to be willing to spend much time in savoring fully what is available to us all. Were we willing to open ourselves fully to aesthetic experiences, we would have excitements, pleasures, and revelations we never imagined possible.

For example, while walking in the woods, instead of looking at the trees and such, notice the empty spaces in between the trees where the sky shows through. Think of the power of the empty space or spaces. Let your feelings go to the ‘negative space’ which actually allows light and air through the trees.

Another example of being willing to open ourselves to art: you are beside a pond or down-town. Then try to use one sense at a time. Try only using your nose, then your ears, or touch something without looking at it, and then you will become aware of new and different feelings you have tucked away. We can have aesthetic experiences of silence and emptiness; of the monotonous and repetitive. Besides works of art, we also respond to objects , substances, or occurrences.

An aesthetic experience is ours when and while we are conscious. At different moments, it has different qualities, stresses, and significance. If we wish to enrich our experience of art, we must perhaps not remain on the surface of things; and make ourselves more attentive, more receptive than we had been.

When we look at a work of art such as a painting, we want to respond to it as fully and completely as possible. In order to do so, we begin by being careful to regard the work as a link between our minds and the creator’s mind. We can find value in our own responses to it, which is not inherently in the object itself. When we say that there is beauty in a picture, what we really mean is, that the particular arrangement of colors and forms causes a state of mind in us, which is good. So in essence appreciation of art is the point of art, and we are describing our own feelings (not the painting) when we talk about any work of art.

When we use the word ‘Beauty’, we think we are talking about something outside ourselves, when we are really talking about something inside (although it tends to be a covert subconscious behavior). Because of our customary way of looking at things, this fact is difficult for some people to grasp. These people should ask themselves where precisely this mysterious quality of beauty is located. In the paint? Inside a piano? In the air? In a block of marble?

We must remember beauty is not art, although there is beauty in art. Art is more than just beauty. In some sense the ugly is a variety of beauty; for tragedy, gargoyles, gruesome poetry, stark painting, and dissonant music serve as examples of art, and can even have positive worth.

Further Assumptions

The quality of an art piece depends on the ability of its creator to express their thoughts and emotions with completeness or individuality. Good habits of work, skills, and desirable techniques may be developed by the various problems in construction and handiwork. Creative ability, invention, innovation, initiative, originality, systematic organization of projects, and the ability to do constructive thinking, planning, and creating all have definite application in everyday life. School activities help a student make adjustments in everyday life, and quality is developed through practice; just as may be done through apprenticeship in the workforce.

Copying or imitating is to transfer the object or view from one place to another. There is less room for creative installation of personal symbols, ideas, or innovation. Copying is less an art, than a craft or even industrial replication. There is an ‘art’ to crafting things, but the two terms can be separated to discuss original invention vs replication techniques. A craft is a skilled hand-made-work or proficiency, as opposed to copying something by using industrial machines.

Children derive intense satisfaction from their art when using their own personal images and subject matter. When a child is working from nature, there is a danger of developing habits of thoughtless and instinctual imitation. While studying nature, one may learn so many scientific details about the subject that emotional and artistic freedoms can be hampered or stifled (see Visual G). Art also contributes largely to the growth of a child’s feelings and faculties, developing creative instinct or potentials into abilities, liberties, responsibility, self-confidence, and self-respect. Finally the part which art plays in the community life of a school has some interesting features: experience in visual art does stimulate children to grow towards a full adult life due to the enhanced attributes already listed. Art develops aspects of personalities and awareness in members of a community for life. The cultural aspects of a community and its effect on a human being will be discussed in the second part of this paper.

In art education, I feel the quality and value of an activity must be considered in relation to life in a community, as well as in relation to the development of the individual. The old idea of teaching art without direct reference to the pupil’s life activities is out of style (or not valid). Teaching art now connects the lessons with the personal and environmental experience of the pupil. Today educators are correlating art with all our subjects in the school.

Another controversial concept of art which everyone thinks they understand is termed DESIGN. Educators and parents are always questioning what is ‘good’ and ‘bad’ design. In my mind designing is an intellectual process, self-conscious and self-critical at all times. It is very hard for students to define design and art. I think design and art are involved with each other very closely. At this point in college, I am not sure how. I myself feel the definition of design is to plan and make with skill. As a noun ‘design’ is defined as, “the arrangement and coordination of the parts or details of any object, by means of which the whole achieves a certain effect or impression, or produces a result”.

Why does an artist study design? An artist studies design for many reasons. Some of the reasons I study design are to stimulate my imagination and arouse latent ideas, develop original thought, and to strengthen judgement. We also acquire the power to express ourselves through the terms and materials employed in a way that shall be clear and coherent. I feel my concept of design is still changing. The concept I have stated has been formed through readings and design courses at FSU.


When a person learns to be creative, they face entire problems and then use divergent thinking to solve the whole task. They should not be afraid to take a risk in problem solving. Be flexible and fluent in your environment. Creativity develops in different degrees. Creativity can be found in all walks of life and professions as science, business, music, writing, dancing, as well as art.

The artist and scientist are both interested in exploring, speculating, and creating new ideas. When it comes to the final product, they differ. The scientist does not make aesthetic judgments, or care about the emotional effects of their inventions, as the artist does. Not all man-made objects are art. (see Visual F)

The ARTS are fascinating. A few similarities and differences are mentioned here. Architecture, sculpture, and painting are arts which create space. Musical composition, stories, and poetry create a texture and meaning for existing time. Theatre, dance, and musical performances present the action of becoming creative. Each of these three groups have units. The units of the spacial arts have primary reference to the size of humans, that of the temporal arts to the span of human attention, and the dynamic arts to human pulse. Each of the group has its own kind of ‘negative space’.

The first Art takes account of empty spaces, the second of unaccented beats and the third of rest. They demand the use of different human senses. All arts produce something worth experiencing. Also everyone of these arts can have a relaxed form. Painting relaxes into ‘doodling’, sculpture into ‘decoration’, architecture into ‘engineering’, poetry relaxes into ‘metrics’, dance into ‘gesture’, theatre into ‘conversation’, and music into ‘melody’.

In summarizing my concept of art at this point in my life, I feel that the artist’s work must be a direct expression of nature of imagination as experienced by humans. Art is a creative process using forces in visual elements and using materials and tool processes. A work of art is organized to create a unified whole. Art has the substantial qualities discussed in this paper, and above all it is creative. Therefore copying a picture is not art, because copying is not creative. One responds aesthetically to art pieces and to the arts. An individual should be willing to respond to aesthetic experiences all about them. An average person has the potential to develop degrees of artistic ability.



George Lansing Raymond, LHD, Art In Theory  (NY: GP Putman 1909, p3-186)

Paul Weiss, Nine Basic Arts (Illinois, SIU Press 1961, p6)

Standard College Dictionary  (Harcourt, Brace and World, p163)

Henry Rasmusen, Art Structure (NY McGraw-Hill, 1950, p59)


Visual A

Visual B – “Bird in Space” by Brancusi represents the soaring bird or human spirit, symbolized and suggested through form. It is seen as a unified whole at once.

Visual C

Visual D – One can respond emotionally to the image of ships; relaxed, tense, excited, numb etc. How does it make you feel? The feeling is an aesthetic emotional experience. Then you can start to analyze why you felt the way you did. I like cloudy skies and ships. The water is calm because you cannot see a ripple anywhere… tranquil.

Visual E – Aesthetic judgments are made between two or more objects. First painting is more soothing than the second, but the judgments are personal.

Visual F – Although an object can be man-made, it does not have to be art. These are manufactured products but not art.

(Note: Remember that this report was written by Nena in 1968, and her views and ideas about art evolved more during the decades afterwards; and the Art World itself continues to change as well, which often affects our opinions as artists)